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H. R. 40 - Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African-Americans
H. R. 40--A bill to acknowledge the fundamental injustice, cruelty,
brutality, and inhumanity of slavery in the United States and the
13 American colonies between 1619 and 1865 and to establish a
commission to examine the institution of slavery, subsequently de
jure and de facto racial and economic discrimination against
African-Americans, and the impact of these forces on living
African-Americans, to make recommendations to the Congress on
appropriate remedies, and for other purposes; to the Committee on
the Judiciary. - By Congressmen John Conyers Jr.
In January of 1989, John Conyers first introduced the bill H. R. 40, Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African Americans Act. He has re-introduced HR 40 every Congress since 1989, and will continue to do so until it's passed into law.
One of the biggest challenges in discussing the issue of reparations in a political context is deciding how to have a national discussion without allowing the issue to polarize our party or our nation.
The bill suggests that the federal government to undertake an official study of the impact of slavery on the social, political and economic life of our nation.
Over 4 million Africans and their descendants were enslaved in the United States and its colonies from 1619 to 1865, and as a result, the United States was able to begin its grand place as the most prosperous country in the free world.
It is un-controvert ed that African slaves were not compensated for their labor. More unclear however, is what the effects and remnants of this relationship have had on African-Americans and our nation from the time of emancipation through today.
The number of the bill, 40, was chosen as a symbol of the forty acres and a mule that the United States initially promised freed slaves. This unfulfilled promise and the serious devastation that slavery had on African-American lives has never been officially recognized by the United States Government.
The Bill Does Several Things:
1. It acknowledges the fundamental injustice and inhumanity of slavery.
2. It establishes a commission to study slavery, its subsequent racial and economic discrimination against freed slaves;
3. It studies the impact of those forces on today's living African Americans;
4. The commission would then make recommendations to Congress on appropriate remedies to redress the harm inflicted on living African Americans.
The commission established would also shed light on the capture and procurement of slaves, the transport and sale of slaves, the treatment of slaves in the colonies and in the United States.
5. It would examine the extent to which Federal and State governments in the U.S. supported the institution of slavery and examine federal and state laws that discriminated against freed African slaves from the end of the Civil War to the present.
The Trans-Atlantic Slave "Trade" and chattel slavery, more appropriately called the Holocaust of Enslavement or Maafa, was a crime against humanity.
Millions of Africans were brutalized, murdered, raped and tortured. They were torn from their families in Africa, kidnapped and lost family and community associations.
African peoples in the United States and the prior colonies were denied the right to maintain their language, spiritual practices and normal family relations, always under the threat of being torn from newly created families at the whim of the "slave owner."
Chattel slavery lasted officially from 1619 to 1865. It was followed by 100 years of government led and supported denial of equal and humane treatment including Black Codes, convict lease, sharecropping, peonage, and Jim Crow practices of separate and unequal accommodations.
African descendants continue to be denied rights of self-determination, inheritance, and full participation in the United States government and society.
The laws and practices in the United States continue to treat African people in a manner similar to slavery - maintaining dual systems in virtually every area of life imaginable, including punishment, health care, education and wealth disparity, maintaining the myths of White superiority, White privilege and African inferiority.
"Until America Reckons With The Moral Debt It Has Accrued ... And The Damage It Has Done To Generations Of
African Americans ... Racism Will Continue To Be A Huge Problem And Issue In America ... Forever And Ever."
"Time To Come Clean America ... Time To Settle-Up ... So That We Can Begin To Move Forward As One Nation!
We Can't Afford To Continue To Kick The Can Down The Road Any Longer! - Time Is Running Out"
William A. Darity Jr., Ph.D.
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill / Duke University
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